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  3. 23.Incidence of Distant Metastasis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma on 18f FDG PET CT Scan
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23.Incidence of Distant Metastasis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma on 18f FDG PET CT Scan

Raja Muhammad Daniyal1, Jehan Alam1, Ambreen Mahboob1, Tariq Mahmood2, Sumaira Babar1 and Ufaira Siraj2

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the incidence and pattern of distant metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

Study Design: Retrospective study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Study was conducted in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery/Radiology department, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January, 2018 to June, 2021 for a period of six months.

Materials and Methods: A total of 416 patients were enrolled in study. Main variables of the study were area of residence, type of cancer, treatment given, recurrence rate, staging of cancer and metastasis. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23. Mean for numerical data and frequency for categorical data was calculated. After applying test of significance p value ≤0.05 was taken as significant.

Results: Four hundred and sixteen squamous cell carcinoma patients were examined in our study. Mean age of the patients was 69.44±18.31 years and most of the patients (49.8%) were between 46-64 years. Most patients belonged to urban areas (55.8%). Mean weight of the patients was 60.56±14.89 kg and mostly (31.0%) weighed in between 51-60 kg. The most common type of cancer we found was buccal mucosa (45.7%) and tongue (43.5%). Amongst the 416 patients, 13.2% patients were diagnosed as having distant metastasis. The most common site that produced metastasis was buccal mucosa especially of the right side (34.6%). Radiotherapy and chemotherapy was given in 50.9% and 58.2% patients respectively. Recurrence was found in 45.5% patients. Most common time to occurrence was between 6-12 months observed in 40.0% patients. The most common tumor stage was observed T3 (41.8%) followed by stage IVA (38.2%) tumor stage, N0 (21.8%) was the most common nodal stage and M0 (43.6%) was the most common M stage. Lungs and mediastinum were the most common organs of distant metastasis at 25.5% and 14.5% respectively.

Conclusion: A high proportion of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral mucosa in our population developed distant metastasis with the most common primary site being the right buccal mucosa and most common metastatic site being the lungs as expected. We also found a considerable number of patients that developed extra pulmonary metastasis in liver, bones and brain which might be due to the higher stage at which patients present and possibly more aggressive characteristic of the tumors.

Key Words: Squamous cell carcinoma, oral cavity, head and neck cancer, distant metastasis.

Citation of article: Daniyal RM, Alam J, Mahboob A, Mahmood T, Babar S, Siraj U. Incidence of Distant Metastasis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma on 18f FDG PET CT Scan. Med Forum 2022;33(3):96-99.