Reduction of Testicular Volume of Albino Rats in Lead Induced Toxicity and Reversal of IT with High Dosages of Vitamin C

Reduction of Testicular Volume of Albino Rats in Lead Induced Toxicity and Reversal of IT with High Dosages of Vitamin C

1. Mujahid Akbar Mamoun  2. Syed Muhammad Tariq Ali Rizvi
3. Sajid Munir Qazi

1. Asstt. Prof., 2,3. Senior Demonostrators, Dept. of Anatomy, Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur

ABSTRACT

Objective: Lead toxicity is a common industrial hazard. It affects all systems of the body. The study was conducted to see reduction in volume of the testes of albino rats and reversal of it with high dosages of vitamin C.

Study Design: Experimental study

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Post Graduate Medical Institute (PGMI), Lahore from May 2007 to April 2009.

Materials and Methods: 90 albino rats were divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E. Each group was comprised of 18 animals and divided into 3 subgroups 1, 2 and 3 sacrificed after 5th, 6th and 7th weeks. Groups A was given normal saline, group B was given lead acetate 10mg/kg body weight, group C was given lead acetate with 250mg/kg body weight of vitamin C, group D was given lead acetate with vitamin C 500mg/kg body weight and group E was given vitamin C 1000mg/kg body weight with lead acetate intraperitoneally.

Results: The animals sacrificed after the 5th week in subgroups A1, B1, C1, D1 and E1 showed insignificant changes while in subgroup A2, B2, C2, D2 and E2 sacrificed after 6th week, P value was 0.015 which was significant. The P value of subgroup 3 sacrificed after 7th week was 0.002 which was significant.

Conclusion: This study showed that lead toxicity brought caused a significant reduction in the volume of the testes. The testes regained their normal size after heavy dosage of vitamin C.

Key Words: Lead acetate, vitamin C, Toxicity, Volume

Citation of article: Mamoun  MA. Rizvi SMTA, Qazi SM. Reduction of Testicular Volume of Albino Rats in Lead Induced Toxicity and Reversal of IT with High Dosages of Vitamin C.Med Forum 2015;26(2):15-19.

Correspondence:  Dr.  Mujahid Akbar Mamoun,
Asstt. Prof. of Anatomy,

Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur

Cell No.: 0333-6417338

Email:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Lead is a common, persistent toxic metal for mankind since thousands of years. Recently it has been seen that lead is causing diseases in millions of people.1Lead is a heavy metal present as such in the earth crust and is also produced with disintegration of uranium.2 Environmental scientists and clinicians have much interest for its wide distribution and continuous emission from industry.3 Lead can catalyze oxidative reactions and no system of the body is immune to its toxic effects.4,5Within 14 days lead can reduce stereogenic enzymes 3 beta hydroxyl steroid and 17 beta hydroxyl steroid which are forming follicle stimulating hormone and leutinizing hormone.5 Excessive oxygen radicals are produced in the body due to lead than the antioxidant radicals present in the body.6 Due to lead toxicity, the size of the testes is reduced because of degeneration of sperms, leydig cells and reduction in diameter of seminiferous tubules.7 Vitamin C works as an antioxidant and protect the testes  against oxidative stress.8A heavy dose of vitamin C can increase the sperm count and the volume of the testes is back to normal.9

MATERIALS AND METHODS

For this study, 90 animals (albino rats) were taken from National Health Institute Islamabad. These were divided into five groups. Each group had 18 animals as group A,B,C,D and E . The animals of group A were given 10 mg/kg body weight and vitamin C 1000 mg/kg body weight daily intraperitoneally.

In the beginning of the experiment, Group A was divided into subgroup A1, A2 and A3. Group B into subgroup B1, B2 and B3. Group C, D and E were divided into C1, C2 and C3,D1,D2 and D3 and E1, E2 and E3 respectively. Subgroup 1 was sacrificed after the 5th week, subgroup 2 was sacrificed after the 6th week and subgroup 3 was sacrificed after the 7th week. Lead acetate was purchased and Vitamin C was given by the courtesy of Mr. Shoaib.

Statistical Analysis: After measuring the volume, the version SPSS 17 was applied. The P value was evaluated with ANOVA. The significant and insignificant values were calculated and added in to results.

RESULTS

In subgroup 1, 2 and 3 the volume of the testes was measured by Varnier Calliper. The  mean  volume  of  the  testes  was taken  and  Lambert  formula  was  applied.  In  subgroup  A1  the  P  value  was  0.422  as in table 1 which was insignificant.

In  multiple  comparison  of   subgroups ( A1,B1,C1,D1 and E1) with  control,  the  P  value   of  A1  to  B1  was  0.094.  A1  to  C1 0.394,  A  to  D1  0.653  and  A  to E1  was  0.935  which  were  insignificant as in table 2.

Table No. 1: Volume of Testes of Rats in mm3 of subgroup 1

Sub

group

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

 A1

6

212.983

7.975

3.256

204.613

221.353

199.30

221.80

 B1

6

202.783

15.090

6.160

186.946

218.619

188.90

230.70

 C1

6

207.900

5.762

2.352

201.852

213.947

201.70

215.00

 D1

6

210.316

8.444

3.447

201.454

219.178

201.70

221.80

 E1

6

212.500

10.938

4.465

201.020

223.979

195.20

228.00

Total

30

209.296

10.159

1.854

205.503

213.090

188.90

230.70

ANOVA

 

 

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

P value

 

Between Subgroups

415.605

4

103.901

1.008

0.422

 

Within subgroups

2577.545

25

103.102

 

 

 

Total

2993.150

29

 

 

 

 

                             

Table No. 2: Multiple Comparisons of Volume of Testes in mm3 of subgroup 1

I

J

(I-J)

Mm3

Std. Error

P value

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

A1

subgroup B1

10.200

5.862

0.094

-1.873

22.273

subgroup C1

5.083

5.862

0.394

-6.990

17.157

subgroup D1

2.666

5.862

0.653

-9.407

14.740

subgroup E1

0.483

5.862

0.935

-11.590

12.557

B1

subgroup C1

-5.116

5.862

0.391

-17.190

6.957

subgroup D1

-7.533

5.862

0.211

-19.607

4.540

subgroup E1

-9.716

5.862

0.110

-21.790

2.357

C1

subgroup D1

-2.416

5.862

0.684

-14.490

9.657

subgroup E1

-4.600

5.862

0.440

-16.673

7.473

D1

subgroup E1

-2.183

5.862

0.713

-14.257

9.890

Table No. 3: Mean Volume of Testes of Rats in mm3 of subgroup 2

Sub group

N

Mean

Std.

Deviation

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum

Maximum

 

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

subgroup A 2

6

224.250

7.650

3.123

216.221

232.278

212.40

233.30

subgroup B 2

6

202.800

15.728

6.421

186.293

219.306

188.90

228.00

subgroup C 2

6

214.183

15.355

6.268

198.068

230.298

192.90

230.70

subgroup D 2

6

218.433

3.999

1.632

214.235

222.630

212.50

223.60

subgroup E 2

6

223.200

6.254

2.553

216.636

229.763

215.00

233.30

Total

30

216.573

12.858

2.347

211.772

221.374

188.90

233.30

ANOVA

 

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

P value

Between subgroups

1810.322

4

452.581

3.791

0.015

Within subgroups

2984.217

25

119.369

 

 

Total

4794.539

29

 

 

 

                         

 

The  P  value  in  sub group 2 was  0.015  which  was  significant  as in table  3. In  comparison  of   subgroups  with  control,  the  P  value   of  A2  to  B2  is  0.002  which  was  significant  while  A2  to  C2 0.123,  A2  to  D2  0.365  and  A2  to E2  is  0.869,  they  were  insignificant  as in table  4.  The  P  value  of  all  the  subgroups  was  insignificant  except  A2  to  B2.                         

The  volume  of  the  testes  was  reduced  when  compared  with  control  subgroup  A2  to  medicated  subgroup  B2  while  the  volume  had  increased  in  subgroup  C2,  D2  and  E2  figure 1.

The  mean  volume  of  the  testes  and P value in  group  3 was given in table 5 which is 0.002 and significant. In  comparison  of   subgroups  with  control,  the  P  value   of  A3  to  B3  was  0.000.  A3  to  C3 0.070,  A3  to  D3  0.208  and  A3  to E3  is  0.845  (table  6).  The  P  value  of  all  the  subgroups  was  insignificant  except  A3  to  B3.                           

In  multiple  comparison  the  P  values  in  B3  to  C3  0.030,  B3  to  D3  0.008  and   B3  to  E3  0.001  were  significant  while  in  all  other  subgroups  the  P  was  insignificant  (table 6).                                

The  volume  of  the  testes  was  grossly  reduced  when  compared  with  control  subgroup  A3  to  medicated  subgroup  B3  while  the  volume  had  increased  in  subgroup  C3,  D3  and  E3  (fig 1).

Table No.4: Multiple Comparisons of Volume of Testes in mm3of subgroup 2

I

J

(I-J)

Std. Error

P value

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

A2

subgroup B 2

21.450

6.307

0.002

8.458

34.441

subgroup C 2

10.066

6.307

0.123

-2.924

23.058

subgroup D 2

5.816

6.307

0.365

-7.174

18.808

subgroup E 2

1.050

6.307

0.869

-11.941

14.041

B2

subgroup C 2

-11.383

6.307

0.083

-24.374

1.608

subgroup D 2

-15.633

6.307

0.020

-28.624

-2.642

subgroup E 2

-20.400

6.307

0.003

-33.391

-7.408

C2

subgroup D 2

-4.250

6.307

0.507

-17.241

8.741

subgroup E 2

-9.016

6.307

0.165

-22.008

3.974

D2

subgroup E 2

-4.766

6.307

0.457

-17.758

8.224

Table No. 5: Mean Volume of Testes in mm3 of subgroup 3

Sub group

N

Mean

Std.

Deviation

Std.

Error

95% Confidence Interval
for Mean

Minimum

Maximum

 

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

 A 3

6

224.383

6.975

2.847

217.063

231.703

215.00

233.30

 B 3

6

196.133

14.886

6.077

180.511

211.755

182.70

223.60

 C 3

6

211.650

16.550

6.756

194.281

229.018

192.80

233.30

 D 3

6

215.683

9.992

4.079

205.196

226.170

197.60

226.20

 E 3

6

223.050

6.066

2.476

216.683

229.416

212.40

230.70

Total

30

214.180

14.979

2.7348

208.586

219.773

182.70

233.30

ANOVA

 

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

P value

Between subgroups

3102.768

4

775.692

5.697

0.002

Within subgroups

3404.140

25

136.166

 

 

Total

6506.908

29

 

 

 

                           

Table No. 6 Multiple Comparisons of Volume of Testes in mm3 of subgroup 3

I

J

(I-J)

Std. Error

P value

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

A3

B 3

28.250

6.737

0.000

14.374

42.125

C 3

12.733

6.737

0.070

-1.142

26.608

D 3

8.700

6.737

0.208

-5.175

22.575

E 3

1.333

6.737

0.845

-12.542

15.208

B3

C 3

-15.516

6.737

0.030

-29.392

-1.641

D 3

-19.550

6.737

0.008

-33.425

-5.674

E 3

-26.916

6.737

0.001

-40.792

-13.041

C3

D 3

-4.033

6.737

0.555

-17.908

9.842

E 3

-11.400

6.737

0.103

-25.275

2.475

D3

 E 3

-7.366

6.737

0.285

-21.242

6.508

 

0002 resize

Figure No.1: Comparsion of Volume of Testes

 

DISCUSSION

Sub group A was given only normal saline intraperitoneally and worked as control. Sub group B was given only lead and created toxicity, reduced the volume of testes. When heavy dosages of vitamin C was added in lead toxicity, the volume of the testes becomes normal. Imran et al given the lead to the albino rats and observed the atrophy of the testes.7Biswass observed that the neither only the size of the testes reduced but the gonadal activity also decreased due to lead toxicity.10 Lead toxicity reduced the body weight and reduced the weight of testes with the reduction of volume of the testes.11If the lead has been given pups of mice, the size of the testes reduced and the function became abnormal.12Lead induced the oxidative stress which reduced the spermatogenesis and the volume of the testes with the reduction of the size of the diameter of seminiferous tubules.13In lead toxicity, ascorbic acid and thiamin increased spermatogenesis and the volume of testes.

CONCLUSION

Lead toxicity reduced the volume of the testes with the reduction of spermatogenesis and diameter of seminiferous tubules while high dosages of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) eliminate the toxic effect of lead and kept the volume of testes normal.

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