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6. Male and 3rd Decade of Life Predominate in Suicidal Hanging Deaths in Lahore

Salman Pervaiz Rana1, Azhar Masud Bhatti2, Farhat Sultana3, Pervaiz A. Rana1, Javed Iqbal Khokhar1 and Muhammad Arslan Javed1


Objective: The objective of the study was to find out sex and age group predominance amongst all asphyxial deaths especially suicidal in Lahore, hanging in particular and also to analyze its results with other studies carried out previously.

Study Design: Observational / descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, King Edward Medical University, Lahore from January 2006 to December 2008.

Materials and Methods: During this study 2979 autopsies were conducted. 220 cases of Asphyxial Deaths were selected. The material of study was taken from autopsy reports, available police papers and treatment charts of various hospitals.

Results: It was 7.39% (220) cases of asphyxial deaths in 2979 autopsies. The commonest cause was hanging, 104 cases (47.27%), 64 cases of strangulation (29.09%) and 52 cases of manual compression (throttling) 23.64%. Out of these 220 asphyxial deaths, the commonest manner of deaths was hanging in 68 cases (68.50%). It also showed a distinct male predominance in all asphyxial deaths, which appeared as 2.78:1 male to female ratio. Another distinct feature which was highlighted that, 3rd decade age group in males showed higher incidence in contrast to females which had high incidence in 2nd decade in all asphyxial deaths.

In all such deaths, strangulation was higher in number in twenties, thirties and forties years.Male were higher in number in hanging as compared to female, while females showed high incidence in thirties and forties years.In Ligature Strangulation, females showed higher number in 2nd, 3rd and 4th decades as compared to males. Males showed higher in manual throttling in thirties as compared tofemales, who showed predominance in forties.

In all 220 asphyxial deaths, the homicidal manner was seen in 57.27% of cases, suicidal in 30.90% and 11.82% cases were un-determined. The manner of death in hanging was suicidal in 65.38% (n=68 cases), homicidal in 9.62% (n=10 cases) and in 25.0% (n=26 cases) it was un-determined. The knot was placed at occiput in hanging (062.50%) cases, and was in lateral position in023.08% of cases. Whereas it was on front in 78.13%cases in ligature strangulation and in 21.87% of cases it was lateral.

Conclusion: In our country, the hanging is a commonest method adopted for suicide andstrangulation & manual throttling are used for homicidal killings. In hanging deaths, males predominate and especially the 3rd decade of age group. In autopsy findings, the presence of ligature above the thyroid cartilage usually is seen in hanging. On the other hand it’s seen at or below the thyroid in strangulation. The hyoid bone fracture if present, strongly suggest, that death is due to throttling.

Key Words: Asphyxia, Suicidal Hanging, Male Hanging, 3rd Decade.

Citation of article: Rana SP, Bhatti AM, Sultana F, Rana PA, Khokhar JI, Javed MA. Male and 3rd Decade of Life Predominate in Suicidal Hanging Deaths in Lahore. Med Forum 2017;28(1):22-26.